Tuesday, May 15, 2018

Hard Times Come to Everyone

So...it's been well over a year since I've blogged anything. I've come to a point that I usually just publish my thoughts on Facebook. I figured I would take the opportunity to blog instead for a change.

Today I sit here in rather dire straits financially. I'm working towards getting my disability started, a process that I'm told takes quite a while. I have a dual purpose in writing this blog. I hope to encourage others who are struggling, and I also intend to look back on this in the future when I'm not struggling to see how far God has brought me.

Not one Christian is immune from trials. The Apostles were martyred for their faith-talk about hard times!!! Anyone with a small knowledge of the Bible knows that God tests people many times before He blesses them. I don't know His reasoning for that, and perhaps none of us will ever know the mind of God this side of Heaven.

A common theme that runs through the Bible is faith. Starting in Genesis with Abraham, we find God requiring His servants to have faith. Abraham was in what appeared to be a hopeless situation. He was too old, as certainly was Sarah, to have a child in the natural. God certainly seems to have a habit of waiting until things seem impossible before He does His work, doesn't He? It had to be a miracle!

What about Joseph? There's a hopeless case if there ever was one! His brothers wanted to murder him out of jealousy. They settled instead for selling him to traders. He went into slavery in Egypt. He was falsely accused of sexual misconduct and thrown into prison. How many of us would have given up at that point? I can sure say I would be tempted! Many of us would be asking God what in the world was He thinking? "God, you've given me all of these dreams, yet here I sit in prison accused of something I didn't do!" Yes, I can see myself saying that if I found myself in that position. Don't say it wouldn't tempt you. Joseph held tight to his faith. We have the benefit of hindsight to show us where Joseph ended up, something Joseph did not have. It wasn't like he could open up the book of Genesis and see how things turned out. We know how things turned out. God made his dreams into reality, and Joseph wound up second in command of Egypt!

Poor Job. He lost his children and his health. His wife told him to curse God and die. His friends accused him of harboring sin in his life. Some friends, eh? Satan just knew Job would curse God and renounce Him. In spite of everything happening to him, Job held to his integrity and trusted God. We know what he had to say-even if God killed him, he would still trust Him. That is some faith, folks! We all know how Job's story ended. Just like Joseph, though, Job didn't have the benefit of picking up the good ole KJV or NIV and seeing how his story ended. No! He had to have a faith walk. What happened in the end? God showed up, showed out, and He restored Job double for his trouble! Again, God let Job be in an impossible situation before He worked a miracle.

King David. A man after God's own heart. The inspiration for this blog I'm writing. We read in I Samuel 3 how God grew tired of Saul and told Samuel to go to the house of Jesse to anoint a new king. We know the story. All of Jesse's sons, save David, appeared before Samuel. Not one of them was the new appointed king. David was tending sheep! The sheep tender was to be the new king of Israel. Samuel anointed him king, and David took the throne the next day. Oh, wait, you say that's not how it happened? Well, darn it, you're right! David endured trials and tests long before ascending to the throne. Saul wanted him killed due to jealousy. David was on the run quite a while attempting to escape from Saul. Do you think perhaps David grew weary? I'm sure he did. Perhaps he even asked God what was going on and said he didn't understand what God was doing. In the end, David took the throne of Israel as God had promised.

Look, I could sit here for hours and talk on this subject pulling reference after reference after reference. A.W. Tozer is quoted as saying that God never uses a man greatly until He hurts him deeply. Is it fun? Not at all. No one likes trials and tribulations. We'd rather hear about prosperity and blessings. No doubt God does bless and give prosperity, but He also allows trouble to come our way. We may never understand the exact purpose of why He allows things, but we can be assured it is in our best interest. I don't think God has a problem with us saying we don't understand or praying for understanding as to why He is doing something. In the end, however, we have to trust God and let Him do his work. Hold tightly to your faith-it will be worth it all!!!

Sunday, February 12, 2017

Challenges Facing Christian Singles

I was asked by a friend of mine about a year and a half ago to write something for our Bible Study class. I found this while going through an old flash drive.

Challenges Facing Christian Singles

1.      Places to go-there are not as many activities for Christian singles as there are for the non-Christian. Most Christians who are serious about their walk with God will not want to go to nightclubs or bars. There need to be more activities on the weekends for Christian singles to attend, even if they are not intended as activities to bring singles together for dating.
2.      The absence of Christian singles, especially in the more rural areas such as ours, is something that cannot be dismissed. In a more urban setting in a bigger city this might not be as much of an issue. At my previous church, I was the only middle-aged Christian single person; there were several singles who were senior citizens or teens, but no one in my age range. I figure the problem is pretty widespread, especially in rural areas.
3.      Loneliness is a BIG concern for Christian singles. There’s an old saying about being alone in a crowd of people. This is something that I feel like at times. I can be in a church service surrounded by friends/family, but I feel alone. I know I’m loved by my friends/family as well as God, but it does not take the place of wishing for a Godly spouse to lean on in hard times or to share the happy times with. Friends mean well and tell you that you “have them” if you never find someone, but it’s not the same. I would never want to hurt feelings or make a friend feel less appreciated, but it’s truly not the same as having a Godly spouse/girlfriend. In some cases, seeing a happily married couple in a loving, committed marriage rubs salt in the wound. You begin to question “why me, Lord, where is my blessing?”
4.      Getting frustrated is yet another issue facing Christian singles of today. The majority of us have social media whether it be Facebook, Snapchat, Twitter, or whatever the case may be. Seeing happily committed couples on social media, whether they’re newly married or engaged, can lead to sadness. Yes, I’m happy for that couple, but as I stated before, it leads to a feeling of “why not me; why am I unable to find someone?” It can lead you to a point of feeling like God has you on the “back burner,” blessing everyone else before you.
5.      Scammers and fakes are something that I know all too well about. In my case, I married someone who wanted to “play church” and played the game well. In the public eye, she was this Godly, upstanding woman of God who went down to the altar and could cry a river of tears, while being the total opposite at home behind closed doors. We have to remember that the Bible tells us that Satan appears as an angel of light, so why should we be shocked that there are people with less than honorable intentions in church? This is why it is SOOO important to pray long and hard before getting married, as well as listening to advice from God-fearing family and friends.
6.      Abstinence before marriage is looked upon as taboo by many in our culture, even among some Christians. I am currently taking a class on marriage and the family and the professor pointed out that it’s “next to impossible” to abstain before marriage. While I disagree with her viewpoint, that is the viewpoint that many take; they want to “try it before they buy it.” We are saturated with sexual messages at every turn. Porn channels are available for immediate consumption on cable/satellite as well as the Internet. Even run of the mill TV shows feature what was once considered soft porn. Even going into WalMart can be problematic for those who struggle. You see magazines with scantily clad women on the cover all the while the magazine gives you headlines about “best sex ever.” While this isn’t a temptation for every man obviously, men are visual creatures and it can present a problem for them.
7.      There is a temptation for many to settle for less than God’s best. Even Abraham had this issue when God wasn’t moving fast enough to suit him! Many people get tempted to “missionary date” out of absolute frustration, thinking if only they could get them to church, they’d be saved and have “instant Christian relationship.” God knew what He was doing when He gave the command against being unequally yoked as the non-Christian is more likely to bring the Christian down to their level instead of vice-versa. As a teenager, I was given a brilliant illustration. You had two people; one stood on the altar representing the Christian, while the other person laid in the floor representing the non-Christian. The person on the altar attempted to pull up the person in the floor, a task that proved to be very hard. Then the person in the floor took their turn trying to pull down the person standing on the altar, a task much easier accomplished! The point in this simple illustration is that it is much easier to bring the Christian down to the level of the non-Christian.
8.      You can also settle for the wrong person even if they’re a Christian. While I don’t subscribe to the “God has only one person for everyone” philosophy, there is also a danger in settling even with someone who is a Christian. For example, I don’t feel someone who has been saved for many years would be a good fit for someone who just got saved and is a baby Christian. As time went on and the person got to know more about the Lord, maybe so, but not settling right off the bat just because they’re “now a Christian.” This would actually come close to the missionary dating scenario in some ways.
9.      Another issue that has worried me is how many changes will I have to make when/if I do meet someone? After right at 9 years of being single, I have become set in my ways. If I decide I’m going to go somewhere, I go. If I decide I want to stay up until 2AM, I stay up until 2AM!!! That all changes in a relationship/marriage. You have someone else with whom you are making plans with whether a relationship or a marriage. In a marriage, you can’t simply stay up until 2AM and watch TV if you so desire. You’re no longer cooking for one in a marriage, but for two! It isn’t to say that two people can’t have individual tastes and do things that they like from time to time, but if a marriage or relationship is going to work, it has to have common ground.
10.  Children are a factor, especially for us older singles. Mine are almost grown at this point, but children come into play in a potential relationship, opening up a virtual Pandora’s Box in some cases. What if you’re interested in someone who also has children? If the relationship led to a marriage, how are you going to make room for more children? Do you want children together? How do the children get along with the potential stepparent? Do you even agree on parenting styles?
11.  Finances are a biggie facing someone who wishes to pursue a relationship. Times are tough and the economy isn’t the greatest these days. Do you even have money to date? Factoring in children as mentioned in #10 can really make for troubles in dating. As a college student who’s surviving on grants, loans and the occasional opportunity to substitute teach, I’m not certain I could sustain a relationship due to finances.
12.  Singles are in many cases expected to get married. Oh, you’re 30 and unmarried? What’s wrong with you? Many people today want to hold off on marriage and build up their finances to a secure point, as well as their personal life. The older generation doesn’t understand this. Gone are the days when people were getting married at 16 or 17 years old, but well-meaning people of that generation think it should still be that way.
13.  Let’s face it, though it is tough to admit, we singles sometimes think that God simply doesn’t know what He’s doing. Yeah, yeah, yeah, we’re supposed to be “good little Christians” who never doubt God and trust Him with every aspect. We’re also human. Going back to #7 and Abraham, apparently even he had doubts about what God was doing; if not, he wouldn’t have listened to Sarah and followed her foolish advice.
14.  Is there something wrong with me? Am I simply too weird to find someone? I’ve had these thoughts and I guess other Christians have as well. “I’ve been single for x-number of years, so it must mean I’m not desirable to anyone.”

15.  The thing that pesters me almost more than anything is the “you’ve got God and He’s all you need.” Yes, I do have God. I feel that we as Christians should pursue God before a relationship. However, even God said it wasn’t good for man to be alone, that He would make him a helper. I don’t know how many times I’ve reminded God of that verse. If God Himself said it wasn’t good for a man to be alone, why do some feel that “God is all you need?”

Saturday, May 2, 2015

Rome and Christianity

Ronald George Reagan
EH 412 Final Paper: Rome and Christianity
Kennett, MO Campus
Education Level: Junior (I could graduate this fall but I’m going on for my education degree)
Elementary/Middle School Degree
            Personally, I am the type of person that finds ANY history interesting. If you would like to talk about the Romans, the Greeks or the Revolutionary War, I am all ears! When I was a kid, I discovered a high school history book in a cabinet in the bathroom left by the previous home owners of which one was a high school teacher. I was drawn to the section on Rome and can remember thinking how drab the picture of Caesar looked, so I colored him in with crayon! I know that Rome has left a marked influence on our culture even today. Hank Williams demoed a song entitled “Ten Little Numbers” in which he said “I is one and X is 10 so what’s the use to bother your head to count like Caesar when Caesar’s dead” [i] and that certainly describes how I felt about a particular math class earlier this year. Even the endnotes for this particular research paper are represented in Roman numerals! I was taught from an early age that the names of the days and months were of Roman origin. We have holidays that are of Roman origin as well. As someone who has a huge interest in all things political and in how laws are formed, I know that Rome has had a lasting legacy on our code of law and our style of government. My main interest in Rome, however, are the ties between Roman history and Christianity. While the Bible itself does not necessarily mention a whole lot about Rome proper, we do find references throughout the New Testament to Roman rulers, rendering to Caesar what is Caesar’s, Paul’s Roman citizenry and his appeal to Caesar. There are also some who say that the book of Revelation had cryptic references to Rome, though that is really out of the scope of this paper. From a prophetical standpoint, there was the overthrow of Israel in 70 A.D. that was prophesied by Christ. I simply find that you cannot separate Christianity from Rome. While Christianity and the world have changed culturally since those earliest days when Peter, James and John were penning Scripture and Paul was appealing to the throne to be heard, we can trace our modern Christianity back to those fledgling Apostles and their Gospel message that was being preached in the shadow of Rome.

            The very start of Christianity coincides with Roman rule. Julian G. Anderson in his paraphrased A New Accurate Translation of the Greek New Testament into Simple Everyday American English states that “[a]bout the time John was born the Roman Emperor Augustus sent out an order that they must take a census of the whole Roman Empire. This was the first census, and it was taken while Quirinius was the Governor of Syria.” (Luke 2:1-2).[ii] Right from the “get-go” we see Roman involvement in the very roots of Christianity and New Testament Scripture. However, we can go back further before the birth of Christ and Christianity to see the Roman Empire paving the way for what was to come.

            In our textbook, The Romans from Village to Empire, we go back in time to the reign of Caesar Augustus, first mentioned Biblically in Luke. We find that it was a peaceful time with the textbook telling us there was a “return of peace and stability…”[iii] We find that during this time “Pax Romana” was the flavor of the day, a term that literally means “Roman Peace” in Latin.[iv] One can only wonder how the Christian message would have fared if Rome would have been involved in conflict after conflict either in civil war or in war with other nations. It was this peace that helped set the stage for Christianity to flourish. This is in stark contrast to the Old Testament when the Jewish people were seemingly in constant battle with surrounding nations and being carried off into bondage by other nations. The world in which Christ was born was one of relative calm and safety in comparison to ancient times and I dare say even in contrast to our own time as well.
            Another underlying factor that allowed Christianity to flourish was the Roman road system. “The quality and extent of roads in the Roman Empire is legendary. Thousands of miles of roads connected major cities as well as outlying areas of the Roman Empire, facilitating and encouraging travel throughout the Mediterranean world and beyond.” [v] The gospel of Christ simply could not have occurred, let alone spread in such a dramatic, explosive fashion if not for the quality of the Roman roads of the time. When one takes a look at the various peoples that had the Christian message brought to them, one has to realize the Apostles and those who followed behind in their footsteps simply would not have been able to travel to the myriad of places they did if there was not a dependable, quality road system in place. A casual perusal of New Testament Scripture shows letters being written to both residents in Israel (the book of Hebrews) all the way to Christians in Rome (the book of Romans).  

            The intertwining of Rome and Christianity continued past the birth of Christ. Early on in the New Testament, we are told of Herod the Great who felt threatened by the birth of Christ. “Jesus was born in the town of Bethlehem, in Judea, during the reign of King Herod. At about that time some astrologers from eastern lands arrived in Jerusalem, asking, ‘Where is the newborn King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in far-off eastern lands, and have come to worship Him.’ King Herod was deeply disturbed by their question…”[vi] Julian G. Anderson describes the jealousy of Herod and his connection to Rome. “This Herod was called Herod the Great. He was appointed ‘king’ of…Israel by the Roman Government in 37 B.C. He was terribly jealous and suspicious of anyone who might take away his kingdom.”[vii] Just like other despots in history his anger knew no bounds. “Sending [Roman] soldiers to Bethlehem, he ordered them to kill every baby boy two years old and under, both in the town and the nearby farms, for the astrologers had told him the star first appeared to them two years before.”[viii] This, however, is just the start of Rome and Christianity meeting and mingling and it wouldn’t be the end of the Herodian line interacting with important figures in the Bible.

            A few hours before his death, King Herod made a will giving portions of his kingdom to various family members, an arrangement that Caesar Augustus had approved upon Herod’s last visit to Rome.[ix] His son Antipas is the next Roman focus of the Bible and events that were to follow in the life of John the Baptist.

            As is the case with most people, Herod the Tetrarch as the Bible refers to him, did not take to correction very well. When John the Baptist corrected him over a great moral failure, he wished to put him to death on one hand but was afraid to do so for fear of the people. He eventually was bound by an oath to do so, an oath made to his wife’s daughter after he promised to give her anything she wanted. “The king was sorry, but for the sake of his oath and his guests he ordered [John’s head] to be given her; he sent and had John beheaded in the prison, his head was brought on a dish and given to the girl…”[x] John the Baptist was the forerunner of Christ as evidenced by Mark 1:2-3[xi] and in a way, he foreshadowed the martyrdom of Christ even though the manners of death were completely different. 

            The Bible is relatively silent on the subject of Christ’s formative years other than a trip to the Temple as a preteen. With this in mind, we have no idea how little or how much Rome or Roman law and lifestyles influenced and impacted Him past indirect things such as the road system. The Roman/Christianity interaction picks back up in the 12th chapter of Mark. The religious leaders of the day, like Herod the Great had been, were afraid for their positions and were looking for a way to entrap and discredit Christ. These suspect leaders had hoped to not only entrap and discredit Him, they wanted to put the hammer down and get Christ in hot water with the Roman government. They asked him if it was legal to pay taxes to Caesar or not, to which Christ replied “Give back to Caesar what is Caesar’s and to God what is God’s.”[xii]

            If one searches hard enough, there are probably more minute details that could be found showing Rome and Christianity interacting. For the sake of brevity, I will fast forward to the arrest and trial of Christ. At this point even though early in Christian history, the meeting of Rome and Christianity goes into full overdrive. Though initially tried under Jewish law, Christ was brought before Pilate, a Roman official serving in Israel, after being arrested by Roman soldiers. Under Jewish law, the religious leaders of the day could not have Christ executed, so they sent Him to be tried under Roman law under which He could be executed. When they saw that Pilate was not going to condemn Christ to death for what amounted to Jewish religious questions, they accused Him of saying it was illegal to pay taxes to the Roman government and that He had proclaimed Himself to be king. Finally in desperation Pilate gave in to the masses, masses who had been influenced by the religious leaders, and ordered Christ to be executed.[xiii] Even an age old familiar Bible story shows a connection to the Roman Empire!

            How odd is it that something that was once a symbol of death and punishment for the lowest of the low is now a symbol of hope and joy to millions of people? People wear crosses on a daily basis; people have crosses tattooed on their body; we drive past churches with crosses every day, day after day; we hear countless sermons preached every Sunday talking about this once dreaded symbol of death. Though the cross was used in ancient times before the Romans, it is widely associated with Rome due to the fact that was what Christ was hung on and countless others before Him. According to Funk & Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia, “[t]he death of Christ by crucifixion caused Christians to regard the cross with reverence. Since apostolic times the cross has had a prominent place in Christian liturgy. The early Christians prayed with arms extended to represent Christ on the cross…”[xiv]

            Where does this leave us? Most religious movements would have fizzled out if their leader died what was considered a disgraceful death. In our modern times we certainly do not hear of churches that heed to the doctrines of Jim Jones or David Koresh (I realize these are extreme examples and not indicative of Christ). Instead like a bomb exploding, the message of Christ spread all over after His death. Indeed, “Roman authorities and intellectuals did not know what to make of this new religion.”[xv] Indeed, Acts 17:6b tells us that Jewish leaders in Thessalonica stated “Paul and Silas have turned the rest of the world upside down, and now they are here disturbing our city…”[xvi]

            “The following night, the Lord stood by him, and said, ‘Cheer up, Paul, for as you have testified about me at Jerusalem, so you must testify also at Rome.’"[xvii] The rubber is really starting to meet the road at this point. Paul, the first missionary, was arrested and brought to trial on trumped up charges. “He was tried before Festus Porcius, who, following an appeal to Caesar, sent him to Rome.”[xviii] Though the Bible goes into great detail about the time between then and his arrival in Rome, it is somewhat silent on what happened once in Rome. Only a part of a chapter and one whole chapter of 31 verses are devoted in the book of Acts to his arrival and stay in Rome. The book of Acts ends on this note, a note that clearly shows Rome and Christianity running parallel to each other, “[s]o Paul stayed there in his own rented home for two whole years, and he gave all those who came to see him a warm welcome.”[xix]      

            There are hints in both the Biblical narrative and other narratives that Paul was freed and traveled to other places, including Spain, but later returned to Rome and was martyred there.[xx] According to many Christian scholars, especially Roman Catholics who believe Peter to have been the first Pope, Paul was not the only Christian martyr in Rome. Peter never referred to Rome by name but he did speak of “Babylon” which was a Christian nickname for Rome.[xxi] Fred Zaspel gives multiple items of evidence to support the claim that Peter was in Rome and had been buried there.[xxii] While it is not known if Peter was actually crucified upside down as many legends state, it can be established beyond much of a shadow of a doubt that he did die in Rome as a martyr for his Christian faith.

            When you get past the earliest apostles, the Bible itself is mainly silent on the activities involving Rome and the Christian faith. At that point we must start relying on other historical sources to fill in the gaps. We find in our textbook that Nero used Christians as scapegoats for the great fire of 64 A.D. and “[h]is brutality created some of Christianity’s first martyrs…and unintentionally [strengthened] the new religion.”[xxiii] Although not specifically mentioned in our textbook, history teaches us that Nero went so far as to use Christians as torches to light his garden at night.[xxiv] Christian martyrdom is nothing new, although we do not see much of it in the Western world. One only need to look at the Middle East and the rising of ISIS to see that history repeats itself. 

            Although every prior event that has been mentioned was and still is important, and although each fact fits in like puzzle pieces to make the whole of Christian and Roman interaction, perhaps the most important date for this aside from Christ’s crucifixion in circa 29-30 A.D. is the early 300’s A.D. when Constantine began to look favorably upon Christians. “In 313 he granted special exemptions from mandatory government service to [Christians]...and offered Christian churches a share in imperial revenue.”[xxv] His favor continued to the Christian church and he himself converted to Christianity, the first Roman emperor to do so.[xxvi]

            How often do we think of Rome when we read our Bible or attend church on Sunday morning? While we may disagree on certain minor points of theology, the fact remains that without Rome, there would be no Christian denominations. It was the advancements of Rome in peace and road systems that allowed the gospel to spread like wildfire. From Christ and the earliest apostles to Christians in Nero’s time, Rome had Christian blood on its hands from martyrdom. Although Paul and Silas never lived to see it, their “turning the world upside down” eventually resulted in the first Christian emperor and Christianity flourishing as an official religion recognized and promoted by Rome. It is certainly an interesting case study to see the intertwining of Rome and Christianity.

[i] Rose, Fred. Ten Little Numbers. Hank Williams, Sr. Mercury, 1998. CD.

[ii] "Luke 2:1-2." A New Accurate Translation of the Greek New Testament into Simple, Everyday, American English. Trans. Julian G. Anderson. Naples, FL: J.G. Anderson, 1984. 163. Print.

[iii] Boatwright, Mary T., Daniel J. Gargola, Richard J. A. Talbert, and Noel Lenski. "Augustus and the Transformation of the Roman World." The Romans: From Village to Empire. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 305. Print.

[iv] "Pax Romana | Roman History." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 01 May 2015.

[v] Donald, D. "In the Fullness of Time: Christianity in the Roman Empire." History of Western Civilization. George Mason University, n.d. Web. 01 May 2015.

[vi] "Matthew 2:1-3." Reach Out: The Living New Testament. Trans. Ken Taylor and Harold Myra. 23rd ed. Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1969. 3. Print.

[vii] Anderson, Julian G. "Some Helpful Notes for the Reader." A New Accurate Translation of the Greek New Testament into Simple, Everyday, American English. Naples, FL: J.G. Anderson, 1984. 729. Print.

[viii] Matthew 2:16." Reach Out: The Living New Testament. Trans. Ken Taylor and Harold Myra. 23rd ed. Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1969. 3. Print.

[ix] Morse, Joseph L., ed. "Herod the Great." Funk and Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia. 8th ed. Vol. 13. New York: Wilfred Funk, 1966. 4566. Print.

[x] "S. Matthew 15:9." The Bible: James Moffatt Translation. Trans. James Moffatt. Vol. 5. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1994. 20. Print.

[xi] Mark. The Message. Colorado Springs: NavPress, 2009. Mark 1:2-3. Bible Gateway. Web. 02 May 2015.

[xii] "Mark 12:17." Holy Bible: NIV, New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2011. N. pag. Print.

[xiii] Maclaren, John J. "Jesus Christ, The Arrest And Trial Of - International Standard Bible Encyclopedia." Bible Study Tools. Bible Study Tools, n.d. Web. 02 May 2015.

[xiv] Morse, Joseph L., ed. "Cross." Funk and Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia. 8th ed. Vol. 7. New York: Wilfred Funk, 1966. 2507-2508. Print.

[xv] Boatwright, Mary T., Daniel J. Gargola, Richard J. A. Talbert, and Noel Lenski. "The Early Principate." The Romans: From Village to Empire. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 342. Print.

[xvi] Acts 17:6." Reach Out: The Living New Testament. Trans. Ken Taylor and Harold Myra. 23rd ed. Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1969. 323. Print.

[xvii] "Acts 23:11." World English Bible. Trans. Michael P. Johnson. S.l.: Book On Demand, 2012. N. pag. Print.

[xviii] Morse, Joseph L., ed. "Paul." Funk and Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia. 8th ed. Vol. 19. New York: Wilfred Funk, 1966. 6910. Print.

[xix] "Acts 28:30." A New Accurate Translation of the Greek New Testament into Simple, Everyday, American English. Trans. Julian G. Anderson. Naples, FL: J.G. Anderson, 1984. 423. Print.

[xx] McCallum, Dennis. "A Chronological Study of Paul's Ministry." A Chronological Study of Paul's Ministry. Xenos Christian Fellowship, n.d. Web. 02 May 2015.

[xxi] "I Peter 5:13." Reach Out: The Living New Testament. Trans. Ken Taylor and Harold Myra. 23rd ed. Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1969. 588. Print.

[xxii] Zaspel, Fred. "Biblical Studies." Biblical Studies. Fred Zaspel, n.d. Web. 02 May 2015.

[xxiii] Boatwright, Mary T., Daniel J. Gargola, Richard J. A. Talbert, and Noel Lenski. "The Early Principate." The Romans: From Village to Empire. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 343. Print.

[xxiv] "Biblical Studies." Biblical Studies. Ibis Communications, Inc., n.d. Web. 02 May 2015.

[xxv] Boatwright, Mary T., Daniel J. Gargola, Richard J. A. Talbert, and Noel Lenski. "A Christian Empire." The Romans: From Village to Empire. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 461. Print.

[xxvi] "Conversion of Constantine - Christianity History Constantine." Conversion of Constantine - Christianity History Constantine. ReligionFacts, n.d. Web. 02 May 2015.