Saturday, May 2, 2015

Rome and Christianity

Ronald George Reagan
EH 412 Final Paper: Rome and Christianity
Kennett, MO Campus
Education Level: Junior (I could graduate this fall but I’m going on for my education degree)
Elementary/Middle School Degree
            Personally, I am the type of person that finds ANY history interesting. If you would like to talk about the Romans, the Greeks or the Revolutionary War, I am all ears! When I was a kid, I discovered a high school history book in a cabinet in the bathroom left by the previous home owners of which one was a high school teacher. I was drawn to the section on Rome and can remember thinking how drab the picture of Caesar looked, so I colored him in with crayon! I know that Rome has left a marked influence on our culture even today. Hank Williams demoed a song entitled “Ten Little Numbers” in which he said “I is one and X is 10 so what’s the use to bother your head to count like Caesar when Caesar’s dead” [i] and that certainly describes how I felt about a particular math class earlier this year. Even the endnotes for this particular research paper are represented in Roman numerals! I was taught from an early age that the names of the days and months were of Roman origin. We have holidays that are of Roman origin as well. As someone who has a huge interest in all things political and in how laws are formed, I know that Rome has had a lasting legacy on our code of law and our style of government. My main interest in Rome, however, are the ties between Roman history and Christianity. While the Bible itself does not necessarily mention a whole lot about Rome proper, we do find references throughout the New Testament to Roman rulers, rendering to Caesar what is Caesar’s, Paul’s Roman citizenry and his appeal to Caesar. There are also some who say that the book of Revelation had cryptic references to Rome, though that is really out of the scope of this paper. From a prophetical standpoint, there was the overthrow of Israel in 70 A.D. that was prophesied by Christ. I simply find that you cannot separate Christianity from Rome. While Christianity and the world have changed culturally since those earliest days when Peter, James and John were penning Scripture and Paul was appealing to the throne to be heard, we can trace our modern Christianity back to those fledgling Apostles and their Gospel message that was being preached in the shadow of Rome.

            The very start of Christianity coincides with Roman rule. Julian G. Anderson in his paraphrased A New Accurate Translation of the Greek New Testament into Simple Everyday American English states that “[a]bout the time John was born the Roman Emperor Augustus sent out an order that they must take a census of the whole Roman Empire. This was the first census, and it was taken while Quirinius was the Governor of Syria.” (Luke 2:1-2).[ii] Right from the “get-go” we see Roman involvement in the very roots of Christianity and New Testament Scripture. However, we can go back further before the birth of Christ and Christianity to see the Roman Empire paving the way for what was to come.

            In our textbook, The Romans from Village to Empire, we go back in time to the reign of Caesar Augustus, first mentioned Biblically in Luke. We find that it was a peaceful time with the textbook telling us there was a “return of peace and stability…”[iii] We find that during this time “Pax Romana” was the flavor of the day, a term that literally means “Roman Peace” in Latin.[iv] One can only wonder how the Christian message would have fared if Rome would have been involved in conflict after conflict either in civil war or in war with other nations. It was this peace that helped set the stage for Christianity to flourish. This is in stark contrast to the Old Testament when the Jewish people were seemingly in constant battle with surrounding nations and being carried off into bondage by other nations. The world in which Christ was born was one of relative calm and safety in comparison to ancient times and I dare say even in contrast to our own time as well.
            Another underlying factor that allowed Christianity to flourish was the Roman road system. “The quality and extent of roads in the Roman Empire is legendary. Thousands of miles of roads connected major cities as well as outlying areas of the Roman Empire, facilitating and encouraging travel throughout the Mediterranean world and beyond.” [v] The gospel of Christ simply could not have occurred, let alone spread in such a dramatic, explosive fashion if not for the quality of the Roman roads of the time. When one takes a look at the various peoples that had the Christian message brought to them, one has to realize the Apostles and those who followed behind in their footsteps simply would not have been able to travel to the myriad of places they did if there was not a dependable, quality road system in place. A casual perusal of New Testament Scripture shows letters being written to both residents in Israel (the book of Hebrews) all the way to Christians in Rome (the book of Romans).  

            The intertwining of Rome and Christianity continued past the birth of Christ. Early on in the New Testament, we are told of Herod the Great who felt threatened by the birth of Christ. “Jesus was born in the town of Bethlehem, in Judea, during the reign of King Herod. At about that time some astrologers from eastern lands arrived in Jerusalem, asking, ‘Where is the newborn King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in far-off eastern lands, and have come to worship Him.’ King Herod was deeply disturbed by their question…”[vi] Julian G. Anderson describes the jealousy of Herod and his connection to Rome. “This Herod was called Herod the Great. He was appointed ‘king’ of…Israel by the Roman Government in 37 B.C. He was terribly jealous and suspicious of anyone who might take away his kingdom.”[vii] Just like other despots in history his anger knew no bounds. “Sending [Roman] soldiers to Bethlehem, he ordered them to kill every baby boy two years old and under, both in the town and the nearby farms, for the astrologers had told him the star first appeared to them two years before.”[viii] This, however, is just the start of Rome and Christianity meeting and mingling and it wouldn’t be the end of the Herodian line interacting with important figures in the Bible.

            A few hours before his death, King Herod made a will giving portions of his kingdom to various family members, an arrangement that Caesar Augustus had approved upon Herod’s last visit to Rome.[ix] His son Antipas is the next Roman focus of the Bible and events that were to follow in the life of John the Baptist.

            As is the case with most people, Herod the Tetrarch as the Bible refers to him, did not take to correction very well. When John the Baptist corrected him over a great moral failure, he wished to put him to death on one hand but was afraid to do so for fear of the people. He eventually was bound by an oath to do so, an oath made to his wife’s daughter after he promised to give her anything she wanted. “The king was sorry, but for the sake of his oath and his guests he ordered [John’s head] to be given her; he sent and had John beheaded in the prison, his head was brought on a dish and given to the girl…”[x] John the Baptist was the forerunner of Christ as evidenced by Mark 1:2-3[xi] and in a way, he foreshadowed the martyrdom of Christ even though the manners of death were completely different. 

            The Bible is relatively silent on the subject of Christ’s formative years other than a trip to the Temple as a preteen. With this in mind, we have no idea how little or how much Rome or Roman law and lifestyles influenced and impacted Him past indirect things such as the road system. The Roman/Christianity interaction picks back up in the 12th chapter of Mark. The religious leaders of the day, like Herod the Great had been, were afraid for their positions and were looking for a way to entrap and discredit Christ. These suspect leaders had hoped to not only entrap and discredit Him, they wanted to put the hammer down and get Christ in hot water with the Roman government. They asked him if it was legal to pay taxes to Caesar or not, to which Christ replied “Give back to Caesar what is Caesar’s and to God what is God’s.”[xii]

            If one searches hard enough, there are probably more minute details that could be found showing Rome and Christianity interacting. For the sake of brevity, I will fast forward to the arrest and trial of Christ. At this point even though early in Christian history, the meeting of Rome and Christianity goes into full overdrive. Though initially tried under Jewish law, Christ was brought before Pilate, a Roman official serving in Israel, after being arrested by Roman soldiers. Under Jewish law, the religious leaders of the day could not have Christ executed, so they sent Him to be tried under Roman law under which He could be executed. When they saw that Pilate was not going to condemn Christ to death for what amounted to Jewish religious questions, they accused Him of saying it was illegal to pay taxes to the Roman government and that He had proclaimed Himself to be king. Finally in desperation Pilate gave in to the masses, masses who had been influenced by the religious leaders, and ordered Christ to be executed.[xiii] Even an age old familiar Bible story shows a connection to the Roman Empire!

            How odd is it that something that was once a symbol of death and punishment for the lowest of the low is now a symbol of hope and joy to millions of people? People wear crosses on a daily basis; people have crosses tattooed on their body; we drive past churches with crosses every day, day after day; we hear countless sermons preached every Sunday talking about this once dreaded symbol of death. Though the cross was used in ancient times before the Romans, it is widely associated with Rome due to the fact that was what Christ was hung on and countless others before Him. According to Funk & Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia, “[t]he death of Christ by crucifixion caused Christians to regard the cross with reverence. Since apostolic times the cross has had a prominent place in Christian liturgy. The early Christians prayed with arms extended to represent Christ on the cross…”[xiv]

            Where does this leave us? Most religious movements would have fizzled out if their leader died what was considered a disgraceful death. In our modern times we certainly do not hear of churches that heed to the doctrines of Jim Jones or David Koresh (I realize these are extreme examples and not indicative of Christ). Instead like a bomb exploding, the message of Christ spread all over after His death. Indeed, “Roman authorities and intellectuals did not know what to make of this new religion.”[xv] Indeed, Acts 17:6b tells us that Jewish leaders in Thessalonica stated “Paul and Silas have turned the rest of the world upside down, and now they are here disturbing our city…”[xvi]

            “The following night, the Lord stood by him, and said, ‘Cheer up, Paul, for as you have testified about me at Jerusalem, so you must testify also at Rome.’"[xvii] The rubber is really starting to meet the road at this point. Paul, the first missionary, was arrested and brought to trial on trumped up charges. “He was tried before Festus Porcius, who, following an appeal to Caesar, sent him to Rome.”[xviii] Though the Bible goes into great detail about the time between then and his arrival in Rome, it is somewhat silent on what happened once in Rome. Only a part of a chapter and one whole chapter of 31 verses are devoted in the book of Acts to his arrival and stay in Rome. The book of Acts ends on this note, a note that clearly shows Rome and Christianity running parallel to each other, “[s]o Paul stayed there in his own rented home for two whole years, and he gave all those who came to see him a warm welcome.”[xix]      

            There are hints in both the Biblical narrative and other narratives that Paul was freed and traveled to other places, including Spain, but later returned to Rome and was martyred there.[xx] According to many Christian scholars, especially Roman Catholics who believe Peter to have been the first Pope, Paul was not the only Christian martyr in Rome. Peter never referred to Rome by name but he did speak of “Babylon” which was a Christian nickname for Rome.[xxi] Fred Zaspel gives multiple items of evidence to support the claim that Peter was in Rome and had been buried there.[xxii] While it is not known if Peter was actually crucified upside down as many legends state, it can be established beyond much of a shadow of a doubt that he did die in Rome as a martyr for his Christian faith.

            When you get past the earliest apostles, the Bible itself is mainly silent on the activities involving Rome and the Christian faith. At that point we must start relying on other historical sources to fill in the gaps. We find in our textbook that Nero used Christians as scapegoats for the great fire of 64 A.D. and “[h]is brutality created some of Christianity’s first martyrs…and unintentionally [strengthened] the new religion.”[xxiii] Although not specifically mentioned in our textbook, history teaches us that Nero went so far as to use Christians as torches to light his garden at night.[xxiv] Christian martyrdom is nothing new, although we do not see much of it in the Western world. One only need to look at the Middle East and the rising of ISIS to see that history repeats itself. 

            Although every prior event that has been mentioned was and still is important, and although each fact fits in like puzzle pieces to make the whole of Christian and Roman interaction, perhaps the most important date for this aside from Christ’s crucifixion in circa 29-30 A.D. is the early 300’s A.D. when Constantine began to look favorably upon Christians. “In 313 he granted special exemptions from mandatory government service to [Christians]...and offered Christian churches a share in imperial revenue.”[xxv] His favor continued to the Christian church and he himself converted to Christianity, the first Roman emperor to do so.[xxvi]

            How often do we think of Rome when we read our Bible or attend church on Sunday morning? While we may disagree on certain minor points of theology, the fact remains that without Rome, there would be no Christian denominations. It was the advancements of Rome in peace and road systems that allowed the gospel to spread like wildfire. From Christ and the earliest apostles to Christians in Nero’s time, Rome had Christian blood on its hands from martyrdom. Although Paul and Silas never lived to see it, their “turning the world upside down” eventually resulted in the first Christian emperor and Christianity flourishing as an official religion recognized and promoted by Rome. It is certainly an interesting case study to see the intertwining of Rome and Christianity.

[i] Rose, Fred. Ten Little Numbers. Hank Williams, Sr. Mercury, 1998. CD.

[ii] "Luke 2:1-2." A New Accurate Translation of the Greek New Testament into Simple, Everyday, American English. Trans. Julian G. Anderson. Naples, FL: J.G. Anderson, 1984. 163. Print.

[iii] Boatwright, Mary T., Daniel J. Gargola, Richard J. A. Talbert, and Noel Lenski. "Augustus and the Transformation of the Roman World." The Romans: From Village to Empire. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 305. Print.

[iv] "Pax Romana | Roman History." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 01 May 2015.

[v] Donald, D. "In the Fullness of Time: Christianity in the Roman Empire." History of Western Civilization. George Mason University, n.d. Web. 01 May 2015.

[vi] "Matthew 2:1-3." Reach Out: The Living New Testament. Trans. Ken Taylor and Harold Myra. 23rd ed. Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1969. 3. Print.

[vii] Anderson, Julian G. "Some Helpful Notes for the Reader." A New Accurate Translation of the Greek New Testament into Simple, Everyday, American English. Naples, FL: J.G. Anderson, 1984. 729. Print.

[viii] Matthew 2:16." Reach Out: The Living New Testament. Trans. Ken Taylor and Harold Myra. 23rd ed. Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1969. 3. Print.

[ix] Morse, Joseph L., ed. "Herod the Great." Funk and Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia. 8th ed. Vol. 13. New York: Wilfred Funk, 1966. 4566. Print.

[x] "S. Matthew 15:9." The Bible: James Moffatt Translation. Trans. James Moffatt. Vol. 5. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1994. 20. Print.

[xi] Mark. The Message. Colorado Springs: NavPress, 2009. Mark 1:2-3. Bible Gateway. Web. 02 May 2015.

[xii] "Mark 12:17." Holy Bible: NIV, New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2011. N. pag. Print.

[xiii] Maclaren, John J. "Jesus Christ, The Arrest And Trial Of - International Standard Bible Encyclopedia." Bible Study Tools. Bible Study Tools, n.d. Web. 02 May 2015.

[xiv] Morse, Joseph L., ed. "Cross." Funk and Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia. 8th ed. Vol. 7. New York: Wilfred Funk, 1966. 2507-2508. Print.

[xv] Boatwright, Mary T., Daniel J. Gargola, Richard J. A. Talbert, and Noel Lenski. "The Early Principate." The Romans: From Village to Empire. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 342. Print.

[xvi] Acts 17:6." Reach Out: The Living New Testament. Trans. Ken Taylor and Harold Myra. 23rd ed. Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1969. 323. Print.

[xvii] "Acts 23:11." World English Bible. Trans. Michael P. Johnson. S.l.: Book On Demand, 2012. N. pag. Print.

[xviii] Morse, Joseph L., ed. "Paul." Funk and Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia. 8th ed. Vol. 19. New York: Wilfred Funk, 1966. 6910. Print.

[xix] "Acts 28:30." A New Accurate Translation of the Greek New Testament into Simple, Everyday, American English. Trans. Julian G. Anderson. Naples, FL: J.G. Anderson, 1984. 423. Print.

[xx] McCallum, Dennis. "A Chronological Study of Paul's Ministry." A Chronological Study of Paul's Ministry. Xenos Christian Fellowship, n.d. Web. 02 May 2015.

[xxi] "I Peter 5:13." Reach Out: The Living New Testament. Trans. Ken Taylor and Harold Myra. 23rd ed. Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1969. 588. Print.

[xxii] Zaspel, Fred. "Biblical Studies." Biblical Studies. Fred Zaspel, n.d. Web. 02 May 2015.

[xxiii] Boatwright, Mary T., Daniel J. Gargola, Richard J. A. Talbert, and Noel Lenski. "The Early Principate." The Romans: From Village to Empire. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 343. Print.

[xxiv] "Biblical Studies." Biblical Studies. Ibis Communications, Inc., n.d. Web. 02 May 2015.

[xxv] Boatwright, Mary T., Daniel J. Gargola, Richard J. A. Talbert, and Noel Lenski. "A Christian Empire." The Romans: From Village to Empire. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 461. Print.

[xxvi] "Conversion of Constantine - Christianity History Constantine." Conversion of Constantine - Christianity History Constantine. ReligionFacts, n.d. Web. 02 May 2015.

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

The Clampetts and Nonverbal Communication

Ron Reagan
27 April 2015
Final Paper
            Come and listen to my story about nonverbal communication. Yes, even our favorite television show characters can be analyzed for nonverbal communication. Although they are actors portraying another person and not indicative of who the actor is in real life perhaps, they still bring their characters to life in front of us, drawing us in as if they were the person we see on the small screen. From September 26, 1962 until March 23, 1971, CBS brought the antics of everyone’s favorite hillbillies into living rooms across the United States. If there was ever a series ripe for a discussion on nonverbal communication, it would have to Jed and all his kin! The menagerie of the characters that paraded in and out of the Clampett’s lives, and the Clampetts themselves, proves to be a hotbed of discussion for the topic at hand.

            First, we can take a look at the Clampett’s clothing. What a contrast! One would expect them to be a bit “rough around the edges” when first moving to California from their native Ozark home. The clothing of the Clampetts led to a huge misunderstanding right from the get-go. Due to a huge colossal mix-up, the Clampetts are arrested and put in jail in the very first episode, “The Clampetts Strike Oil.” Milburn Drysdale, the penultimate snob only eclipsed by his wife, Margaret, for snobbery, goes to the jail looking for the Clampetts, intent on bailing them out. Jed and Jethro are dressed for practicality as our textbook describes in Chapter Four while Mr. Drysdale is always dressed to impress in his business suit. Expecting a millionaire to be dressed better, he mistakes Jed and Jethro as “cutthroats” and asks them what they’ve done with J.D. Clampett! According to, we see Mr. Drysdale displaying aggressive anger; he makes the assumption these “cutthroats” have harmed his new client in some shape, form or fashion and he is “taking charge” of the situation. The site further points out his aggressiveness; they list “use of illustrative gestures” as an example of being assertive. I don’t think one can get more assertive than Mr. Drysdale did when he grabbed Jed by the shirt demanding answers!

            One would legitimately believe that would have been the end of the Clampett’s problems and they could settle down to a new life in “Californy.” Enter Jane Hathaway, Mr. Drysdale’s homely secretary in the second episode “Getting Settled.” Mr. Drysdale has entrusted her with the task of changing the family from backwoods bumpkins to cream of the crop Beverly Hills elites. She has little idea of what she is about to encounter. says that we have all judged someone based on their appearance whether we know it or not. They point out that “[o]ften, we expect certain people to dress a certain way before we learn anything about their credentials” and further down “[c]ertain types of clothing carry certain assumptions.” We simply do not expect someone in shabby clothing to be an oil millionaire that should be living in a mansion. Miss Jane as the Clampetts come to know her was guilty of the very thing we all have done! She assumed by their style of dress that they were servants hired to work at the mansion. Though it was a comedy show and not real life, there is a life lesson in that episode that we never should judge a book by its cover. 

            Today, we think of commercials as something entirely separate from the show. Such wasn’t the case in the 1960’s when a huge majority of commercials were performed by the cast. Fernando Poyatos, author of Advances in Nonverbal Communication, calls television commercials a “historical development” in his book. He takes a negative view of television commercials it would seem, calling them hedonistic and perverted. While that is certainly an extreme view, it could well be applied to our beloved Clampett clan. One of the sponsors of The Beverly Hillbillies was Winston cigarettes. For the first few seasons, every other week had a jingle added at the end of the theme song for Winston and the end of the show that week featured Jed, Granny, Mr. Drysdale or Ms. Hathaway in character plugging the joys of smoking Winston, telling viewers that “Winston tastes good like a cigarette should.” It was known even then the dangers of smoking, yet they went every other week plugging this very much harmful product. I wonder how many children were inclined to start smoking in part due to seeing Uncle Jed puffing away? Again, I think Mr. Poyatos might be a bit extreme with his views but in this regard, he does have a very valid point.

            Vocalics as defined by Stephen Edlund at is “accent, emphasis, vocal quality, pitch rate and pulse…” The backwoods idioms of the Clampett clan are certainly an interesting area to be explored. Jed and his catchphrase “well doggies” is a standout. Those words by themselves could mean a variety of things to someone just reading them in print. When combined with Jed’s vocal inflections, they became a term of excitement. When you heard those words uttered, you could tell he was in awe of something. Mrs. Drysdale’s disdain for the Clampetts came through in her vocal articulations, oozing disgust at every turn. In the episode “The Big Chicken,” she calls them “sordid sharecroppers.” The words standing alone would point out her disgust but she added a certain vocal tone to them with the way in which she said it, adding emphasis to her disgust of having to live next door to these rubes and hayseeds. 

            In Chapter 9 on vocalics, Mr. Edlund goes on to talk about accents and dialects. He points out that everyone has an accent and that people are stereotyped according to their particular grouping. As if their clothing wasn’t enough to dissuade one from believing them to be a family of Beverly Hills millionaires, the icing on the cake would have to be the accent Jethro and the rest of the Clampetts spoke with. On the Season 8 episode “Jed Buys Central Park,” the Clampetts have went for a visit to the Ozarks where the Silver Dollar City Fair is going on. Looking for a quick buck, Honest John Shafer, portrayed by legendary actor Phil Silvers doing his best impersonation of his hit character Ernie Bilko, comes to town. He runs into Jethro who is anxious to know this “city feller.” Miscommunication arises as Honest John believes he is dealing with a rube and attempts to brush him off until Jethro says his uncle has $80 million in the bank. Even after Jethro telling him this, he obviously still has trouble believing it to be the truth. He turns to hotel manager Shorty Kellems and asks if Jethro is being truthful or if the hotel was the “Silver Dollar City Funny Farm.” After being assured that Jed had “more millions than he could shake a stick at,” Silvers reprises his conman style that he made popular on The Phil Silvers Show in the 1950’s, attempting to take Jed for all he could.

            In Chapter 15 of our textbook, there is an entire chapter devoted to deceit and lies. The book says that “[o]n the receiving end, people also rely heavily on nonverbal channels to size up another’s credibility and honesty.” This once again can be integrated into the plot of the show. In the first season episode “Jed Buys the Freeway,” a conman by the name of H.H.H. Jones attempts to sell Jed a variety of landmarks including the freeway and the Hollywood Bowl. The audience is clued in to the fact he is a con man but he seems to be fooling the Clampetts. His exaggerated speech and mannerisms completely give him away to the audience, leaving one wondering how Jed or Granny can’t see it. He became even bolder claiming to be a “mountain man” from the Ozarks. In the end, however, Jed sees right through him relying upon a hilarious nonverbal clue-he can’t hold his liquor! This same scenario was used again in the last two seasons when Phil Silvers guest starred in which he attempted to sell Jed various New York City and Washington, D.C. landmarks.

            Chapter 12 of our textbook addresses the topic of reciprocity. The book defines this as occurring when “a person responds to another person’s behavior by engaging in similar behavior.” While I do not recall too many instances of this occurring in the show, there are a few instances that stand out. In “The Clampett Look,” a wealthy socialite and her daughter are convinced that the hillbilly style is in vogue. Hilarity followed as they believed Ellie Mae to be a trend-setter and in an effort to fit in with the “new fashion,” they raid the gardener’s shack at their mansion for clothing! Going back to the second episode, “Getting Settled,” Miss Jane found herself being fired for the mistake of thinking the Clampetts the hired help. Jed jumps to her defense saying she had been a big help and had really “pitched in.” Instead of acting like the Vassar College graduate she was, she grabbed a hat, pulled it down like Jed’s and started imitating his mannerisms and speech even telling Jethro to take that “pank chicken (a flamingo) back to the cee-ment pond!” From that point on, she was accepted almost as if she was one of the Clampett clan.

            Chapter 10 of our textbook might as well have been written with Jethro “International Playboy” Bodine in mind! “Your image reflects not necessarily how you see yourself, but rather, how you want others to see you,” opines the textbook author. While the other members of the family were “what you see is what you get,” Jethro was constantly wanting to shed the country boy image. He fancied himself to be another James Bond for a while. In “The Private Eye” he goes to great lengths to portray himself as a “double naught spy” with predictably hilarious results. When one thing failed, he was always ready to move on to the next thing whether it was a sheik, a talent agent, magician or soldier. I think it would be sufficient to say Jethro suffered from one huge identity crisis, even going so far as expressing to Jed in “The Hot Rod Truck” that “I’ve got identity problems. I freaked out as a Hollywood producer, I freaked out as a protestor, I even freaked out as a freakout and now I don’t know my own thing!” Jed gently reminded him that his “thing” was eating and with it being Granny’s birthday and a subsequent birthday party, “you can do your own thing until you’re full as a tick.”

            Television shows are quite obviously meant to entertain us and to sell us a product via the sponsor’s commercials. We can sit and watch these shows for fun, grab a few laughs at the over the top antics of the characters portrayed and deem ourselves to be pretty normal in comparison to them. However we can also look at said characters and see a slice of life in them and see that even they do not use just words to communicate, but they use nonverbal cues just like we all do.

Works Cited:
Burgoon, Judee K., Laura K. Guerrero, and Kory Floyd. "Deceiving Others." Nonverbal Communication. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2010. 404-05. Print.
Burgoon, Judee K., Laura K. Guerrero, and Kory Floyd. "Expressing Real and Desired Identities." Nonverbal Communication. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2010. 261. Print.
Burgoon, Judee K., Laura K. Guerrero, and Kory Floyd. "Relational Messages: Intimacy and Affection." Nonverbal Communication. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2010. 337. Print.
Burgoon, Judee K., Laura K. Guerrero, and Kory Floyd. "The Body as a Code: Appearance and Adornment." Nonverbal Communication. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2010. 105-106. Print.
Edlund, Stephen. "CHAPTER 9-Vocalics (Paralanguage).", 26 Feb. 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.
"Getting Settled." Henning, Paul. The Beverly Hillbillies. CBS. 3 Oct. 1962. Television.
"Jed Buys Central Park." Henning, Paul. The Beverly Hillbillies. CBS. 29 Oct. 1969. Television.
"Jed Buys the Freeway." Henning, Paul. The Beverly Hillbillies. CBS. 27 Feb. 1963. Television.
Pelham, Libby. "Clothing as a Form of Non Verbal Communication." Body Language Expert. BodyLanguageExpert, 18 Oct. 2012. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.
Poyatos, Fernando. "The Interdisciplinary Teaching of Nonverbal Communication: Academic and Social Implications." Advances in Nonverbal Communication Sociocultural, Clinical, Esthetic, and Literary Perspectives. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Pub., 1992. 379. Print.
"The Beverly Hillbillies." CBS Interactive Inc. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
"The Big Chicken." Henning, Paul. The Beverly Hillbillies. CBS. 2 Feb. 1966. Television.
"The Clampett Look." Henning, Paul. The Beverly Hillbillies. CBS. 23 Oct. 1963. Television.
"The Clampetts Strike Oil." Henning, Paul. The Beverly Hillbillies. CBS. 26 Sept. 1962. Television.
"The Hot Rod Truck." Henning, Paul. The Beverly Hillbillies. CBS. 12 Dec. 1968. Television.
"The Private Eye." Henning, Paul. The Beverly Hillbillies. CBS. 6 Oct. 1965. Television.
"Understanding Anger Expression." Understanding Anger Expression. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.